22:1 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching.
The Passover which is the most important feast of the Jewish religion celebrated the time when the angel of death passed over Egypt taking the lives of all the first born sons. God had instructed Moses to tell the people of Israel to kill a lamb that had no blemish and to sprinkle their door posts with the blood of it. When the angel of death saw the blood he would pass by that house and the first born son was spared. A lamb's life for a son's life (Exodus 12: 12 - 13). It also celebrated their deliverance from slavery in Egypt.
22:2 The chief priests and the experts in the law were trying to find some way to execute Jesus, for they were afraid of the people.
It was the days before the Passover that the chief priests and scribes came together to discuss a way that they could kill Jesus Christ without the people knowing for they feared what they would do to them.
22:3 Then Satan entered Judas, the one called Iscariot, who was one of the twelve.
The chiefs priests and scribes were not the main conspirators in this plot, Satan was and the instigator of it all. This fact clearly shows that the Devil was not fully aware of the significance of the atoning death of Jesus Christ. The Devil saw an ally in Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve disciples, who was already a thief and had opened himself to Satan (John 12: 5 -6). The scripture clearly states that Satan entered into Judas; this he could not due unless Judas was an open to it. From this moment Judas was fully under the Devil's control.
22:4 He went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers of the temple guard how he might betray Jesus, handing him over to them.
He went straight to the chief priests and the captains of the temple guards and conspired with them the best way to betray Jesus into their hands.
22:5 They were delighted and arranged to give him money.
This was the opportunity they were hoping for; one of Jesus' own disciples prepared to join with them to get rid Him. It also answered Judas's greed for money for they were going to pay him for his help.
22:6 So Judas agreed and began looking for an opportunity to betray Jesus when no crowd was present.
So Judas promised them that at the first opportunity when their were no crowds with Jesus that he would betray Him.
Preparations for the Passover
22:7 Then the day for the feast of Unleavened Bread came, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed.
The feast lasting for eight days and began on the Day of Unleavened Bread when all the yeast was removed from the home and only unleavened bread was eaten (Exodus 12: 18 - 20).
22:8 Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us to eat."
Jesus instructs two His disciples, Peter and John, to go and make preparations for them to keep the Passover.
22:9 They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare it?"
The Passover had to be celebrated in Jerusalem and as no placed had been booked for them to hold it in Peter and John asked Him what place He wanted them to prepare it (Deuteronomy 16:2).
22:10 He said to them, "Listen, when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him into the house that he enters,
The Lord Jesus Christ gave them some very strange directions as to where He would keep the Passover. As they enter the city a man will meet them; they could not mistake him for he would be carrying a water pitcher. They were to follow him to the house that he goes into. It must be noted that this was not a prearranged meeting made by the Lord Jesus Christ.
22:11 and tell the owner of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?" '
They were to seek out the master of the house and say to him that the Teacher, Jesus, asks where is the guest room that He may eat the Passover with His disciples.
22:12 Then he will show you a large furnished room upstairs. Make preparations there."
The owner of the house will take them upstairs to a large room that is already has a table and couches already set out. In this placed they are to prepare the Passover.
22:13 So they went and found things just as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.
As strange as it seemed the two disciples faithfully obeyed Jesus and went and found it all as He had told them.
The Institution of the Communion
22:14 Now when the hour came, Jesus took his place at the table and the apostles joined him.
When the evening had come, that is after the sun had set, Jesus sat down with the twelve apostles. The term "the hour" or "my hour" is used in John's gospel as referring to the time when the Lord Jesus Christ would be crucified (John 2:4 and John 16:32). That hour was now at hand.
22:15 And he said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.
As they were eating the Passover Jesus told them that He had longed for, set His heart upon, eating the Passover with them before His sufferings began.
22:16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God."
He further told them that He would not eat it again signifying not that He would eat it again in the kingdom of God but that there would be no need for a Passover after He had offered His life as a sacrifice for sin once and for all on the cross (Hebrews 7:27). For He is "the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the whole world" (John 1:29).
22:17 Then he took a cup, and after giving thanks he said, "Take this and divide it among yourselves.
There were four cups of wine drunk at the Passover (Gill) that was taken during the Passover meal. This was the first of them "the cup of blessing" usually done by starting with the words "blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, the King of the world" (Gill. 1 Corinthians 10:16). Jesus takes this cup and gave the thanks and then passed it to His disciples to divide it among themselves.
22:18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes."
As He said of eating the Passover so He says the same of the wine (see verse 16).
22:19 Then he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me."
Jesus then took the bread and gave thanks and broke it in pieces for the disciples to pass to one another. As He gave it to His disciples He told them that this broken bread was symbolic of His body that He would give for them upon the cross. This they were to continually do in remembrance of Him.
22:20 And in the same way he took the cup after they had eaten, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.
After supper had ended He took another cup of wine and said to His disciples that this cup was symbolic of the New Covenant that would replace the Old Covenant. For He would shed His blood upon the cross as an atoning sacrifice for the sins of the whole world (Heb. 12:24).
22:21 But look, the hand of the one who betrays me is with me on the table.
Then He completely astounded His disciples by telling them that the one who would betray Him was sat at the table with Him.
22:22 For the Son of Man is to go just as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!"
He adds that this is what has already been decree (Gen. 3:15).
22:23 So they began to question one another as to which of them it could possibly be who would do this.
The disciples began to ask each other which among them would do such a thing (Psalm 41:9).
The Greatest is the One who Serves
22:24 A dispute also started among them over which of them was to be regarded as the greatest.
Before the supper had ended in spite of what the Lord had said to them the disciples for the second time began to argue as to who would be the greatest among them (see Luke 9:36).
22:25 So Jesus said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those in authority over them are called 'benefactors.'
Intervening in this quarrel Jesus reminded them that it was the practice of the heathen kings to rule over their subjects with an iron hand and that those who were given authority over them were called benefactors.
22:26 Not so with you; instead the one who is greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader like the one who serves.
This was not to be so among His disciples, in fact the very opposite must be so. The one who is the eldest among them and thus would be shown respect must be in word and deed as the youngest who would wait upon his elders. The person who would be their leader must not "lord it over them" but be as he who serves (1 Peter 5:3).
22:27 For who is greater, the one who is seated at the table, or the one who serves? Is it not the one who is seated at the table? But I am among you as one who serves.
Jesus then asks them who is considered to be the most important, the person who sits at the table or the one who serves him? It is the one who sits at the table of course! But it has not been so at this table for Jesus who they had confessed as their Lord and teacher had waited upon them (Matthew 20: 28, John 13: 13 - 14).
22:28 "You are the ones who have remained with me in my trials.
Up to this time His chosen disciples had remained loyal to Him through all the opposition and provocation He had received.
22:29 Thus I grant to you a kingdom, just as my Father granted to me,
As God the Father has given Jesus Christ power and authority over His Kingdom so He bestows upon all His disciples a spiritual kingdom (James 2:5) and an inheritance in it (Romans 8:17).
22:30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Therefore every disciple will be able sit and eat with Jesus Christ at the Marriage Supper of the Lamb (Revelation 19:9). It is given to the twelve apostles to sit on thrones to judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28)
Jesus Prays for Peter
22:31 "Simon, Simon, pay attention! Satan has demanded to have you all, to sift you like wheat,
Jesus now centres His whole attention on impetuous Peter calling. Addressing him twice as Simon Jesus makes known to him that Satan has asked for permission to sift him like wheat is thrashed and separated from the chaff (Job 2: 3 - 6, 1 Peter 5:8). Satan to try to separate Peter from Jesus Christ (John 10:29, Romans 8:35,39).
22:32 but I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith may not fail. When you have turned back, strengthen your brothers."
After warning him of what would happen, Jesus gives Peter that blessed assurance that He has already prayed for him therefore Satan cannot succeed in his designs to cause him to completely backslide in his faith in Christ (Hebrews 7:25). When he has been fully restored Peter was to strengthen, encourage and establish his brothers in the faith.
22:33 But Peter said to him, "Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!"
Peter, impetuous as ever makes the boast that no matter what may happen he would standby the Lord Jesus Christ even if it meant going to prison or be killed.
22:34 Jesus replied, "I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow today until you have denied three times that you know me."
Jesus, who knows the limitations of all people, plainly tells Peter that before the cock crows as the day dawns he will deny that he ever knew Him three times (Mark 14: 71 - 72).JJesus Prepares His J
Jesus Prepares His Disciples
22:35 Then Jesus said to them, "When I sent you out with no money bag, or traveler's bag, or sandals, you didn't lack anything, did you?" They replied, "Nothing."
Addressing all His disciples Jesus asks them about the time that He sent them to evangelise (Luke 9:2). He told them not to make any preparation or take any provisions with the, no money, no suitcase for extra clothing (Luke 9:3). The question He asks is "if they lacked anything" and they answered Him "nothing".
22:36 He said to them, "But now, the one who has a money bag must take it, and likewise a traveler's bag too. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one.
The situation was now different, they were not going out to evangelise but to face an hostile crowd. So now He tells them to take whatever money they had and their suitcases with their clothes. Those who didn't have a sword were to sell their garment and buy one. This was to not prepare them to defend Jesus but for their flight when He would be arrested (John 18:36, 2 Corinthians 10:4).
22:37 For I tell you that this scripture must be fulfilled in me, 'And he was counted with the transgressors.' For what is written about me is being fulfilled."
The time had now come that the prophecy about Him would fulfilled. The one that Jesus quotes here is from Isaiah 53: 3 "And He was numbered with the transgressors, And He bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors". All the prophecies concerning His sacrificial death upon the cross for the sins of the whole world would soon be accomplished and thus come to an end.
22:38 So they said, "Look, Lord, here are two swords." Then he told them, "It is enough."
Somewhere along the way the disciples had acquired two swords and they asked Jesus if this would be enough and He replied that it was.
Jesus Travails in Prayer
2:39 Then Jesus went out and made his way, as he customarily did, to the Mount of Olives, and the disciples followed him.
Leaving the place where they had celebrated the Passover Jesus takes His disciples to the place that He usual went to stay for the night, the Mount of Olives Luke 21:37 "And
in the daytime He was teaching in the temple, but at night He went out and stayed on the mountain called Olivet".
22:40 When he came to the place, he said to them, "Pray that you will not fall into temptation."
When He arrived at the garden of Gethsemane which was at the foot of the Mount of Olives He expressly told His disciples to pray that they might give in to temptation. According to Matthew's Gospel He left eight of His disciples here and took Peter, James and John further on into the garden with Him (Matthew 26: 36 - 37).
22:41 He went away from them about a stone's throw, knelt down, and prayed,
Jesus then went on alone to a place about "fifty or sixty feet from them" (Gill). There He knelt down and began to pray.
22:42 "Father, if you are willing, take this cup away from me. Yet not my will but yours be done."
These are the only words of His travailing prayer that we have. Travailing means "to fully exert one's mental or physical powers" in this case with the Lord Jesus Christ it was also spiritual strength. The Lord Jesus Christ knew that His purpose in coming into the world was to give His life as a sacrifice for the atonement of sin; He also knew that there was no other way whereby men could be reconciled to God. So in His first part of His prayer He is not asking for the cup of pain and suffering to be taken away from Him but is submissive to whatever is the will of His Father "if it is Your will, take this cup away from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done."
(Luk 22:43) [Then an angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him.
V43. Then an angel appeared to Him from heaven, strengthening Him.
An angel came to Him in His agonizing moments to strengthen Him in spirit enabling Him to take the cup of suffering.
22:44 And in his anguish he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground.]
Being in great anguish, a state of physical or mental suffering, He prayed more fervently. He was in such agony of spirit that His sweat appeared like great drops of blood. There are many opinions as to whether or not they were literally drops of blood. It is possible that in the intense agony of His travailing prayer that blood vessels broke and mingled with His sweat.
22:45 When he got up from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping, exhausted from grief.
Having finished His praying Jesus rose and went to His disciples and found that because of the great sorrow they felt at the things He had told them were about to happen they had fallen asleep.
So he said to them, "Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you will not fall into temptation!"
21.46. Then He said to them, "Why do you sleep? Rise and pray, lest you enter into temptation."
He woke them up and rebuke them for sleeping and told them start praying so that they would not give in to temptation.
Jesus is Arrested
21.47. But even as Jesus said this, a crowd approached, led by Judas, one of the twelve disciples. Judas walked over to Jesus to greet Him with a kiss..
At the very moment that Jesus said this to His disciples Judas Iscariot was leading a great crowd armed with spears and swords to arrest Him. Judas had no misgivings about what he was doing he walks up to Jesus and greets Him with a kiss!
22:48 But Jesus said to him, "Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?"
Although it was night and there would be some confusion as to who was who Jesus identifies Judas calling him by name and facing him with his cowardly deed "would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?"
22:49 When those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said, "Lord, should we use our swords?"
When the disciples realised what was happening they asked Jesus if they fight and strike out with the two swords they
22:50 Then one of them struck the high priest's slave, cutting off his right ear.
One of the disciples, John's Gospel records that it was Peter (John 18:10), smote the servant of the high priest and cut of his right ear.
22:51 But Jesus said, "Enough of this!" And he touched the man's ear and healed him.
The greatness of the love and compassion of the Lord Jesus Christ is such that He reaches out His hand and heals the ear of this man who had come out to arrest Him.
22:52 Then Jesus said to the chief priests, the officers of the temple guard, and the elders who had come out to get him, "Have you come out with swords and clubs like you would against an outlaw?
Turning to the chief priests and the elders who were among the crowd, and the captains of the temple guards He asks them why they have come out for Him with swords and clubs as if He were a dangerous thief.
22:53 Day after day when I was with you in the temple courts, you did not arrest me. But this is your hour, and that of the power of darkness!"
For a number of days He had been preaching and teaching in the temple and they had not laid a hand upon Him then this was because their deeds being they were afraid to do so before the people (Luke 20: 19,John 3:19). But this was the hour when the powers of darkness (the Devel and His agents) were allowed to have their way so that God's plan of salvation could be accomplished.
22:54 Then they arrested Jesus, led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter was following at a distance.
They then arrested Him and brought Him to the high priest's house. Peter followed behind at a distance as far the courtyard of the high priest's house (Matthew 26:58).
22:55 When they had made a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat down among them.
Because it was cold in the evenings, after the sun had set, the servants and officers made a fire in the courtyard to warm themselves and Peter went and joined with them!
He had followed Jesus at a distance but now he was joined himself to those who had arrested Him. Peter sat in the seat of the scornful, those who would mock Jesus, as the psalmist says (Psalm 1:1b).
22.56 - 57. A servant girl noticed him in the firelight and began staring at him. Finally she said, "This man was one of Jesus' followers!" But he denied Him, saying, "Woman, I do not know Him."
Peter felt quite secure there until a servant saw him and recognised who he was in the light of the fire. Having made sure that she was right she publicly denounced him as being a follower of Jesus. Startled at being found out Peter immediately denies that he doesn't even know Jesus.
22:58 Then a little later someone else saw him and said, "You are one of them too." But Peter said, "Man, I am not!"
They must have believed him more than the servant for they left him alone. A little later a man recognises him and identifies him as being a disciple of Jesus. Again Peter, this time more forcefully denies that he is a disciple of Jesus.
22:59 And after about an hour still another insisted, "Certainly this man was with him, because he too is a Galilean."
Time past by and about an hour later someone else who was standing by the fire emphatically insisted that Peter was a disciple of Jesus for he had a Galilean accent. According John's account this was a relative of the chief priest's servant whose ear Peter had cut off (John 18:26).
2:60 But Peter said, "Man, I don't know what you're talking about!" At that moment, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed.
For the third time Peter strenuously denies that he didn't know what the man was on about. Matthew's account says that "he began to curse and swear" ( Matthew 26:74).
As soon as he had denied Jesus for the third time the rooster crowe
22:61 Then the Lord turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said to him, "Before a rooster crows today, you will deny me three times."
The Lord Jesus Christ who had been left under guard in the courtyard turned and looked at Peter not with eyes of condemnation but of love and compassion. Peter saw this look and remembered that the Lord had told him this would happen.
22:62 And he went outside and wept bitterly.
Peter realising that he had denied the Lord that loved and still loved and reached out to him in love went out from the courtyard and wept bitterly.
The Trial of Jesus .
22:63 Now the men who were holding Jesus under guard began to mock him and beat him.
The guards in charge of Jesus began treat Him with contempt and ridiculed Him and cruelly beat Him (Isaiah 50:6.
22:64 They blindfolded him and asked him repeatedly, "Prophesy! Who hit you?"
They but a blindfold on Him and hit Him across the face and then asked Him to prophesy which one of them had struck Him.
22:65 They also said many other things against him, reviling him.
There were many other things that they said against Him that was blasphemous.
22:6 When day came, the council of the elders of the people gathered together, both the chief priests and the experts in the law. Then they led Jesus away to their council
Although they had come out against Jesus in the night they were not prepared to stay awake to bring their charges against Him. At daybreak, sunrise, the elders of the Sanhedrin, the chief priests and scribes assembled and Jesus was brought before them.
22:67 and said, "If you are the Christ, tell us." But he said to them, "If I tell you, you will not believe,
Notice that they did not read out any charge against Him but they ask Him to tell them if He is the Messiah, the Christ. Jesus knew that even if he told them plainly and quoted the scriptures to them concerning Him that they would not believe.
22:68 and if I ask you, you will not answer.
If they were to discuss this and He should need to ask them questions, they would not answer Him for they were determined to put Him to death.
(Luk 22:69) But from now on the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God."
V69. Hereafter the Son of Man will sit on the right hand of the power of God."
From this time on Jesus, the Son of Man, will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. That is after His death would come the resurrection and then His ascension into heaven (Ephesians 1:20 - 23).
22:70 So they all said, "Are you the Son of God, then?" He answered them, "You say that I am."
The whole Sanhedrin, elders, chief priests and scribes with one voice asked Him if He is the Son of God because they knew that the Messiah was to sit at the right hand of God (Psalm 110:1). Jesus told them that what they said was right.
22:71 Then they said, "Why do we need further testimony? We have heard it ourselves from his own lips!"
As far as they were concerned He had condemned Himself by proclaiming to be the Son of God and their was no need to go on any further with the trial.
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