Lukan Studies The Gospel of Luke Chapter 19 - New Testament Bible study

Living Word Magazine

Seeking and Finding

 

19.1.   Then Jesus entered and passed through Jericho.

 

Continuing His journey to Jerusalem Jesus passes through Jericho.

 

19.2.   Now behold, there was a man named Zacchaeus who was a chief tax collector, and he was rich.

 

Living in this city was a very rich man named Zaccheus (his name means pure) who chief of the tax collectors in the region.

 

19.3.   And he sought to see who Jesus was, but could not because of the crowd, for he was of short stature.

 

He wanted to have a look at Jesus as He passed by but be very short he could see above the crowds.

 

19.4.   So he ran ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see Him, for He was going to pass that way.

 

 He was determined to see Jesus and would use any means open to him to do so.  Seeing a sycamore tree he runs ahead and climbs it knowing that Jesus would have to pass that way.   Note that he did not consider belittling himself to order to achieve his purpose.

 

19.5.   And when Jesus came to the place, He looked up and saw him, and said to him, "Zacchaeus, make haste and come down, for today I must stay at your house."

 

When Jesus arrived at the spot He immediately looked up into the tree for He knew already that Zacchaeus had hid himself there.  Calling him by name He tells him to come down for He was going to be a guest in his home today.

 

19.6.   So he made haste and came down, and received Him joyfully.

 

Zacchaeus did not need a second bidding he quickly climbed down and in great excitement and joy.

 

19.7.  But when they saw it, they all complained, saying, "He has gone to be a guest with a man who is a sinner.

 

The people were not very pleased about this and grumbled amongst themselves because Zacchaeus was a tax collector and therefore a sinner.

 

19.8.   Then Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Look, Lord, I give half of my goods to the poor; and if I have taken anything from anyone by false accusation, I restore fourfold."

 

I do not think that it was out of mere curiosity that Zacchaeus wanted to see Jesus I believe that he realized that he had a need.  Therefore when he was in the presence of the Lord Jesus Christ a conviction of his sins came upon him and in a roundabout way he confessed this when he told Jesus that he would give half his accumulated wealth to the poor and would give back anything four times the amount he had robbed from people.

 

19.9.   And Jesus said to him, "Today salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham;

 

Jesus who knew all about the life that Zacchaeus had lived received his confession of sin and tells him that Salvation had come to him today.  Zacchaeus had shown himself to be a true son of faith of Abraham (Romans 4:16).

 

19.10.  for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost."

 

For this purpose did Jesus, the Son of Man come into the world to seek out those that are lost in sin and to save their souls (Matthew 1:21, Matthew 9: 12 - 13,Romans 5:6).

 

Responsibility

19.11.   Now as they heard these things, He spoke another parable, because He was near Jerusalem and because they thought the kingdom of God would appear immediately.

 

As the people heard what Jesus said to Zacchaeus and as He was drawing near to Jerusalem He tells them a parable concerning responsibility.  For they thought that the Kingdom of God was about to appear.

 

19.12.   Therefore He said: "A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom and to return.

 

There was a certain man of noble birth who went away into a distant country to obtain for himself a kingdom and then return.   The noble man in the parable is the Lord Jesus Christ who left heaven to come to earth to redeem His Kingdom of lost souls.   As the Son of David He came to His own, the Jews to established His Kingdom but they rejected Him.   After accomplishing His mission He returned to heaven with the promise that He would return again.  

 

19.13.   So he called ten of his servants, delivered to them ten minas, and said to them, 'Do business till I come.'

 

As regards the Lord Jesus Christ this cannot refer to His leaving heaven in the first instance because the servants do not refer to the angels in heaven.   The reference can only refer to the Jews who were entrusted with the Word of God.   He called ten of his servants to him and entrusted them with 10 pounds of silver to be used until he comes back to earn interest for him.  

 

19.14.  But his citizens hated him, and sent a delegation after him, saying, 'We will not have this man to reign over us.'

 

But the people hated him conspired against him and sent a delegation saying that they would not have him to be their king.   These people are the Jews who rejected the Lord Jesus Christ and who would not have Him as their king (John 19: 15).

 

19.15.   And so it was that when he returned, having received the kingdom, he then commanded these servants, to whom he had given the money, to be called to him, that he might know how much every man had gained by trading.

 

After the nobleman had received his kingdom he return and summoned those servants to whom he had given the responsibility to put his money to good use to give an account of how much they had increased it by.

 

19.16.   Then came the first, saying, 'Master, your mina has earned ten minas.'

 

The first one came an reported that he had doubled the ten ponds of silver taht had been entrusted to him.

 

19.17.   And he said to him, 'Well done, good servant; because you were faithful in a very little, have authority over ten cities.'

 

This servant was highly praised and told that because he had been faithful in the little that had been given to him his reward would be to be governor over ten cities (Col 3:4, 2 John 1: 8).

 

19.18.   And the second came, saying, 'Master, your mina has earned five minas.'

 

The second man came and told his master that he had earn five more pounds of silver.

 

19.19.   Likewise he said to him, 'You also be over five cities.'

 

For his faithfulness he was rewarded governor ship over five cities.

 

19.20.   "Then another came, saying, 'Master, here is your mina, which I have kept put away in a handkerchief.

 

The third servant came and returned the exact amount of silver that had been given to him wrapped up in an handkerchief (James 4:17, Proverbs 26:16).

 

19.21.   For I feared you, because you are an austere man. You collect what you did not deposit, and reap what you did not sow.'

 

The remarks of this third servant is a contradiction.   He says that he knew that his master was a hard man and because of this he feared what he might do to him if he had lost all the silver that had been entrusted to him.   Yet he was not afraid of what his master would do to him if he had not put his money to good use thus increasing it.

 

19.22.   And he said to him, 'Out of your own mouth I will judge you, you wicked servant. You knew that I was an austere man, collecting what I did not deposit and reaping what I did not sow.

 

By his own confession of his irresponsibility, his laziness, he will be judged.  

 

19.23.  Why then did you not put my money in the bank, that at my coming I might have collected it with interest?'

 

The least he could have done was to but his master's money in the bank to obtain an interest by the time he returned.

 

19.24 - 25.   "And he said to those who stood by, 'Take the mina from him, and give it to him who has ten minas.'   (But they said to him, 'Master, he has ten minas.')

 

Turning to those who were close by he told them to take from this man the silver that had been given to him and give it to the one who had double his money.   But they

told him that this man already had ten pounds.

 

19.26.  'For I say to you, that to everyone who has will be given; and from him who does not have, even what he has will be taken away from him.

 

Jesus said that everyone who has received a gift and uses more will be given to them; and those who do not what they have even this will be taken from them.

 

It is to be noted that Jesus was telling this parable to the Jews who had objected to his dealings with Zacchaeus, the Pharisees and Scribes particularly.   They had been entrusted with the scriptures and had been given the promises of God but they did not fulfill the responsibility that went with it.   It can be applied to Christians who are joint heirs with Christ but to not fulfill the commission that Jesus Christ gave to His followers to go into all the world and preach the gospel Mark 16: 15 (Matthew 28:19 - 20).

 

19.27.   But bring here those enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, and slay them before me.' "

 

As for those who had rebelled against him and did not want him to rule over them he commanded those to be executed.

 

Jesus Comes to His Own

19.28.   When He had said this, He went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem.

 

When Jesus had finished saying these things to them He continue His journey to Jerusalem.

 

19.29 - 30.   And it came to pass, when He drew near to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mountain called Olivet, that He sent two of His disciples, saying, "Go into the village opposite you, where as you enter you will find a colt tied, on which no one has ever sat. Loose it and bring it here.

 

As He came to the villages of Bethphage and Bethany on the mount of Olivet He sent two of His disciples to go into the village.   He told them that as they entered the village they would find a young donkey tied up; they were to release it and bring it to Jesus.

 

19.31.  And if anyone asks you, 'Why are you loosing it?' thus you shall say to him, 'Because the Lord has need of it.' "

 

If anyone were to ask them what they were doing they were to tell them that the Lord needed it.   This was not a prearrange by the owner of the donkey by Jesus; He knew where it was and that it would be sufficient to say to anyone who question them that "the Lord has a need of it".

 

19.32.  So those who were sent went their way and found it just as He had said to them.

 

The two disciples went and found it exactly as Jesus had said.

 

19.33 - 35.   But as they were loosing the colt, the owners of it said to them, "Why are you loosing the colt?"   And they said, "The Lord has need of him."   Then they brought him to Jesus. And they threw their own clothes on the colt, and they set Jesus on him.

 

As they were untying the donkey the owners came and asked them what they were doing and they said the same that Jesus had told them to and it was sufficient.   They took the young donkey back to Jesus and threw their garments on the colt for Him to ride on.

 

19.36.   And as He went, many spread their clothes on the road.

 

As He went towards Jerusalem the people spread their garments on the road in front of Him.

 

19.37.   Then, as He was now drawing near the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works they had seen,

 

When He reached the place where the road started to descend the Mount of Olives all His followers began to cheer and to shout and praise to God for all the mighty works that they had seen Jesus do (Zechariah 9:9).

 

19.38.  saying: " 'BLESSED IS THE KING WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD!' Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!"

 

In their exaltation of Him they acknowledge Him as the King that comes in the name of the Lord and proclaiming peace from Heaven and glory, majesty to the most High (Psalm 118:26).

 

V39.   And some of the Pharisees called to Him from the crowd, "Teacher, rebuke Your disciples."

 

Some of the Pharisees on hearing what was being proclaimed told Jesus to stop His followers from doing so.

 

19.40.  But He answered and said to them, "I tell you that if these should keep silent, the stones would immediately cry out."

 

He replied that if they remained silent that the very stones would immediately begin to shout out praises (Habukkuk. 2:11, Isaiah 55:12).

 

Christ's Compassion

 

19.41.  Now as He drew near, He saw the city and wept over it,

 

As Jesus drew near the city and looked upon it He wept over it.   This is the second time that the scriptures record that Jesus wept.   The first at the grave of Lazurus.

 

19.42.   saying, "If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes.

 

He wept because He knew their utter blindness to him as the promised Messiah, the Saviour that this was their day of visitation  For this hour He had come into the world to give His life on the cross to redeem their souls and thus making peace between them and God (Isaiah 6: 9 - 10, Romans 11: 8- 10).

 

19.43.   For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side,

 

Here Jesu foretells the time when the Roman army would come and besiege the city until it falls.

 

19.44.   and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation."

 

They would completely destroy it and the temple not leaving one stone upon another and their children would be massacred.   All because they did not want to know they would not recognise that this was the time that God had visited them and sent His only begotten Son to obtain and offer them salvation.   This happened in 70 AD when Titus besige and laid waste to Jerusalem.

 

19.45 - 46.  Then He went into the temple and began to drive out those who bought and sold in it,saying to them, "It is written, 'MY HOUSE IS A HOUSE OF PRAYER,' but you have made it a 'DEN OF THIEVES.' "  

 

He then entered the Temple and drove out those who were selling the animals for the sacrifices making a mockery of the house of God, turning it into a market place for buying and selling.   He told them that God had declared that His house was an house of prayer but they had made it into a den of thieves (Jeremiah 7:11, Isaiah 56:7).

 

19.47.  And He was teaching daily in the temple. But the chief priests, the scribes, and the leaders of the people sought to destroy Him,

 

As Jesus was teaching every day in the temple the chief priest, scribes and the members of the Sanhedrin  were plotting how they could kill Him.

 

19.48.   and were unable to do anything; for all the people were very attentive to hear Him.

 

But they were unable to do anything about it at this time because the people hung on to His every Word.

 

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Chapter 19

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