1. From Paul, called to be an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Sosthenes, our brother.
It is perhaps appropriate in a letter which deals with doctrine and the discipline of a local church, for Paul to begin by setting out his apostolic credentials; making it absolutely clear that he had the authority to speak in Christ's name when dealing with church affairs. No man may take this office upon himself, only those who are called by God, as Paul was.
It was Paul's usual manner to dictate his letters, and the amenuensis in this case was Sosthenes, who was most likely a native of Corinth, who is mentioned here in this capacity. Some suppose that he may be the same Sosthenes who formerly was the synagogue ruler referred to in Acts 18:17, converted under Paul's ministry, it this by no means certain. All we know for sure is that he was "a brother".
2. To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, and called to be saints, with all those in every place who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours.
Paul addresses his letter to "the church of God in Corinth". The word translated "church" may actually be used to describe any gathering of people, but in this case it is specifically the "church of God". The Church is that group of people who have been purchased for God by Christ's blood and set apart for Him.
Since the believers at Corinth were set apart to God, Paul wanted them to live holy and separate lives. This call to separation is the same for everyone who belongs to Christ - those who habitually call on the name of the Lord Jesus. Today, as then, there are believers all over the world, called and set apart by God's grace. Paul may have mentioned this in order to show the Corinthians (who thought themselves superior) that they were part of a much bigger picture, and that all men everywhere who called on the name of the Lord would be saved, just as they were; they were not unique or superior (Rom. 10:13).
3. Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!
Paul employs his usual greeting. The word "grace" tells of God's free gift to all men of His Son Jesus Christ. Peace tells of wholeness, fullness and satisfaction of the whole life: spirit, soul, and body. These come to us from God the Father and Jesus Christ who are the joint authors of them.
It is important to remember, as we study this epistle, that although all was not well at Corinth, the believers were still the Church of God, set apart and holy, having received and still partaking of his grace. Pride, division, sexual sin, incorrect use of spiritual gifts, false teaching, and other things were problems in the church, which are dealt with later in the letter. But firstly, Paul emphasises all that had come from God and was of God in the church.
A Church Called into Existence by God.
4. I always thank my God for you because of the grace of God that was given to you in Christ Jesus.
Before dealing with the negatives, Paul looks for the positives, things for which he might give thanks to God. He tells the Corinthians that he always thanked God in his prayers for them, because they had received Christ as Saviour and had received so much through Him. One of the problems at Corinth may have been a lack of appreciation of the fact that all which they had had come from God, by grace. Paul is anxious to correct this.
Leon Morris says "human achievement means little to Paul. His thanks are not for anything that the Corinthians have done by their own efforts, but for what the grace of God given them in Jesus Christ has accomplished in them" (1 Corinthians, Banner of Truth, 1973).
5. For you were made rich in every way in him, in all your speech and in every kind of knowledge.
Is it ironical, perhaps, that Paul chooses to mention two gifts which, as Parry says "the Corinthians were especially proud." God in His grace had spiritually enriched them in their grasp and understanding of the truth and their ability to make it known to others.
6. Just as the testimony about Christ has been confirmed among you.
Yet they were able to understand and make known the Gospel because they had first heard it from Paul, Silas, and Timothy who bore witness to the truth among them. The power of the gospel was confirmed in them as it accomplished its purpose: saving, sanctifying, and giving them new life. To did not merely knew the gospel by hearing it, but by experiencing its effect in their lives. Since it was real in their lives, their message rang true to others. As Leon Morris says "the changed lives of the Corinthians demonstrated conclusively the validity of the message that had been preached to them. The effects of the preaching were the guarantee of its truth."
7. So that you do not lack any spiritual gift as you wait for the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Because of this, the Corinthians came behind in no gift. They lacked nothing of eternal worth, for in Christ God had freely given them all things (Rom. 8:32). Paul expressed this to the Ephesian epistle with the assertion that God has blessed believers "with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ Jesus" (Eph. 1:3).
Children who are heirs to a great estate must still be taught to live and behave responsibly in adult life; and these young Christians, who had been blessed by God with "all things" still had to learn how to grow into spiritual adulthood that they might take full possession of their Christian inheritance.
When Paul says that every spiritual gift had been given to them, he is speaking of the local church as a whole, not of individuals. Not every believer has every gift of the Holy Spirit, but the church has them all. One gift that we do all share is the gift of eternal life (Rom. 6:23). However, the Holy Spirit may give several gifts to each believer. In a similar way to the ministry gifts of Christ (Eph. 4:11), they are for building up the church, helping it to grow and mature. One day, when Jesus comes again, there will be no more need for them; for their will be no more partial blessing or partialrevelation. We shall see Him as He is and we shall know Him as we are known (1 John 3:2 ; 1 Cor. 13:12).
So in these verses, as in others throughout his letter, Paul directs their attention away from the gift to the great Giver Himself.
8. He will also strengthen you to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
God, who has given them all things through the Gospel, will continue to ensure that they lack nothing they need to continue on with Jesus Christ. Then they will be blameless in the day when Christ returns, for no charge can be laid against those whom Christ guarantees (Rom. 8:33).
9. God is faithful, by whom you were called into fellowship with His son, Jesus Christ our Lord.
Despite many problems in the church, Paul is confident of the final result: the preservation and glorification of the saints. God is faithful to keep His promise through the Gospel; and Paul reminds the Corinthians that although he had preached to them, it was God who had called them into fellowship with Christ through that Gospel.
No Christian becomes a Christian by his own choice, but because God calls him. It is not of his own initiative, but God's will. Not only are we called into personal fellowship with Christ, we are called into fellowship with all other believers; for it is by sharing a common fellowship with Christ that we are brought into fellowship with one another. This is an important point for Paul to make before he goes into the matter of divisions in the church.
Concerning Divisions in the Church.
10. I urge you, brothers and sisters, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to agree together, to end your divisions, and to be united by the same mind and purpose.
Since all Christians are brothers and sisters in Christ, Paul begs them in Christ's name to agree with each other and live in harmony. Lightfoot says that the phrase "perfectly joined together" is "used (in the Greek of the period) to describe political parties that are free from factions or different states who have friendly relations with each other."
11,12. For members of Chloe's household have made it clear to me, my brothers and sisters, that there are quarrels among you. Now I mean this, that each of you is saying, "I am with Paul," or "I am with Apollos," or "I am with Cephas," or "I am with Christ."
It had been made clear to Paul by members of Chloe's family (members of the church at Corinth) that certain factions had grown up in the Corinthian Church. The people had become taken up with human abilities and the personalities of those teachers whom they admired. Some were attracted to the rhetoric and eloquent preaching of Apollos. Others admired Peter, but whether this was because of his early association with Jesus, his Jewish upbringing, or his rugged fisherman's manliness we can only guess. Others were loyal to Paul, who had founded the church. Whatever the reasons were for these factions, Paul was horrified at them.
13. Is Christ divided? Paul wasn't crucified for you, was he? Or were you in fact baptized in the name of Paul?
God had called them into fellowship with His Son Jesus Christ, they owed their salvation to Him, not any preacher. Although they had heard of Christ through various teachers, they had come to know the God's grace through His Son Jesus Christ. So why were they now divided? Paul asks a series of rhetorical questions to show the absurdity of this behaviour. "Is Christ divided?" can be translated "has Christ been parcelled out?" Moffat. Of course not. Since Christ is one, His Church which is His body must be one. The question "was Paul crucified for you?" directs the attention of the Corinthians back to the cross of Christ, the basis of their salvation, the act which brought the Church into being.
Paul, in later verses, reiterates the centrality of the cross, which the Corinthians seem to have overlooked. Only Christ, by His death, could accomplish the work of redemption.
The third question is "were you baptised in the name of Paul?" Some Christians had not realised the significance of their baptism, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; for since they were baptised in Christ's name, their loyalty was to His alone.
14,15,16. I thank God that I did not baptize any of you except Crispus and Gaius, so that no one can say that you were baptized in my name! (I also baptized the household of Stephanus. Otherwise, I do not remember whether I baptized anyone else.)
"It turned out," says Paul, "that it was just as well that I didn't baptise any of you, except in a couple of special circumstances. Other wise you'd probably all be saying that I was baptised in the name of Paul." Only Crispus, Gaius, and the family of Stephanus were baptised by Paul personally so far as he could remember. These exceptions would have been occasioned by special circumstances and were not special favours (such was the case for the Phillipian jailer in Acts 16). Paul's object was not to win converts for himself but for Christ.
Leon Morris points out that the word "name" implies more than a name or title; it denotes the whole personality. In other words, to baptise in the name of Paul would mean that converts had been brought into fellowship with Paul and that their allegiance was to him. This was not the case; Paul had simply pointed them to Christ.
17. For Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel -- and not with clever speech, so that the cross of Christ would not become useless.
It had not been Paul's practise to baptis; this was not the task which Christ had entrusted to him. He kept himself focused on more important things, for if he did not preach the Gospel, there would be no converts to baptise! His ministry was not marked by wise or eloquent words of human persuasiveness, which would succeed only in drawing men to admire or envy him. He preached God's word plainly and simply, so that the message of the cross would not be obscured, for the Gospel itself is the power of God which draws all men to Christ (Rom. 1:16 ; John 12:32).
18. For the message about the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.
Groups and factions had come about because of the wisdom of men, sophistication of the Corinthian believers. Paul seeks to settle this matter by expounding the truth of the foolishness of the gospel.
The word or message of the cross continues to appear as utter nonsense to those who are dead in their trespasses and sins, who will spend eternity separated from God - they are those who are perishing, the unbelievers. This is because the immense power and glorious truth of the message can only be revealed to the human soul by revelation from God. Human wisdom and understanding will not do. Though you were to search and to study throughout countless ages, they would never discover nor devise a plan so great as the message of salvation through the cross of the Lord Jesus. Of course, when Paul speaks of the cross, he is not speaking merely of a piece of wood, but of the cross as the place where Christ offered himself as a perfect sacrifice for the sins of the world, and died. Three days later he rose again. The power of God to deliver a sinner from his sin and unbelief is contained within the message of the cross itself, and its power is experienced by those who are prepared to believe it. Indeed, it brings faith to open hearts (2 Cor. 4:4-6).
19. For it is written, "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will thwart the cleverness of the intelligent."
So the message of the cross is not of human wisdom, it is not a message about God’s power it IS God’s power. So then, there is nothing accidental about this, Paul quotes from Isa. 29:14 to show that God has deliberately purposed that no man’s wisdom or understanding will be of any benefit to him, or perhaps that lack of it will not be a barrier to him. No human hand will bring about salvation of a soul, but only the power of God in Christ.
20. Where is the wise man? Where is the expert in the Mosaic law? Where is the debater of this age? Has God not made the wisdom of the world foolish?
Although man has boasted of his wisdom and intelligence, he is still unable to save himself, and indeed, his so called intelligence may not stand before God. Since this world and all that is in it are passing away, so the wisdom and learning of this world will pass away. Although learning may have benefit for the present time, it is of no value when considering the eternal things. So, then, here is a subject which has nothing to do with the intelligentsia. A series of rhetorical questions hammers home the point. The learned men are no where to be found, they hide themselves in shame, for God has chosen to make the wisdom of the world into nonsense.
21. For since in the wisdom of God the world by its wisdom did not know God, God was pleased to save those who believe by the foolishness of preaching.
By the wise arrangement of God. Again, he has done so by deliberate choice. God in his wisdom was pleased to save men by the way of the cross and by no other way. By his free and sovereign choice. It was not in his plan that men should attain the knowledge of him by the exercise of their wisdom, but by quite another way. A way which Paul does not hesitate to describe as foolish in the eyes of men. Note that it is not the preaching which is foolish, but the message itself which is regarded as foolish. Yet through this gospel message God saves all who believe (Luke 10:21).
Wesley says "We cannot come to know God in personal salvation through human wisdom...We come to know God only through trusting in the message about Jesus Christ crucified."
22. For Jews demand miraculous signs and Greeks ask for wisdom.
It was characteristic of the Jewish nation that they demanded supernatural evidence for what they believed. Often they demanded such signs from the Lord (e.g. Matt. 12:38 ; John 6:30). Moses had come with such signs, so they considered everything from God must come in the same way. The fact was, however, that they had become stubborn and unbelieving in their hearts, so that they could not take God’s word at face value, but sought that it be regularly confirmed by the extraordinary. To them a crucified Messiah was a contradiction in terms.
The Greek nation on the other hand were largely taken up with philosophy. As we read in Acts about the men of Athens, who spent all their time discussing and contemplating new thoughts. They honored their outstanding "thinkers" many of whom are still famous today. They looked down on those who did not appreciate their wisdom. In our western culture today, the remnants of this society remain, for we tend to honour all kinds of learning and place great emphasis on knowledge and learning in our school and university systems. As Procter says "all this has no saving power for mankind".
Here, the Christian messenger must be careful. The intellectual Greeks looked for wisdom, that is, a philosophic demonstration of Christianity. JFB says "Christ, instead of demonstrative proof, demands faith on the ground of His word.. Christianity begins not with solving intellectual difficulties, but with satisfying the heart that longs for forgiveness."
23. But we preach about a crucified Christ, a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles.
Our message, by distinct contrast says Paul, is not one which pleases either party, for it is not of human origin. It does not pander to the human mind set of either culture. It is a message which transcends all cultures and yet is relevant and powerful for them all. It is the message that Jesus died for us on the cross. Morris points out that the verb used for crucified is a perfect participle, so that whereas Jesus was crucified once, He continues in the character of the crucified one, and the crucifixion although a once and for all act remains permanent in its efficacy and effects. The natural man of all nations cannot accept this truth, for it is imparted by the revelation of God. This message down through the ages till today has caused offense to Jews, who simply cannot accept salvation on God’s terms. Neither do the gentile nations embrace it, for it seems senseless to them.
24. But to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God.
But that is not the whole story. Though men reject the cross, those who are called by God accept it. As usual in Paul’s writings the word called implies an effectual calling. In other words the call has been heeded and obeyed.
25. For the foolishness of God is wiser than human wisdom, and the weakness of God is stronger than human strength.
This verse does not imply that God can be foolish, but rather that the message which is given by God, though it be considered foolish by man, is wiser than anything man could ever know or hope to know. Though the message of a crucified Lord may seem weak to men, it is in fact a demonstration of God’s power, especially in its ability to save the sinner eternally (2 Cor. 13:4).
26. Think about the circumstances of your call, brothers and sisters. Not many were wise by human standards, not many were powerful, not many were born to a privileged position.
Ellicot says "the apostle directs them to look at the facts regarding their own calling to Christianity as an illustration of the truth of what he has just written." Paul goes on to illustrate this truth by the lives of the Corinthians themselves. Who was it who had heard and received the gospel message? There were not many who consider themselves important in any way. God does not choose people because they are wise, or important people, or of high rank. In fact, he has not called many of these at all, though he has called some. for "wise...after the flesh" Barnes says "the wisdom of this world acquired by human study without the Spirit" (contrast this with Matthew 16:17).
27. But God chose what the world thinks foolish to shame the wise, and God chose what the world thinks weak to shame the strong.
Since God's criteria for selection is faith in the heart, not intelligence in the head, we see that the he has chosen the foolish. He has done this, all in the context of the message of the cross, so as to shame the wise, letting them see how worthless their so called wisdom is. He has called the weak to shame the strong.
28. And the base things of the world and the things which are despised God has chosen, and the things which are not, to bring to nothing the things that are. (NKJVTM)
Rather than chose those of royal or noble birth, God has chosen ordinary people (read this for "base things") who believe in his son Jesus Christ the Lord. It is the despised lowly class of society in the main which God has chosen, and if he has chosen any other it is not so that they might show off their abilities, but because they recognize in fact that they have none, they are spiritually and morally bankrupt and that is why they fly and cling to the cross of Christ alone for their salvation. The phrase "the things that are not" is very strong, and says that God’s activity is creative. He takes hold of nothing at all and makes what he wants out of it. We bring nothing to Christ. We merely give ourselves to him just as we are. It is a new creation which brings us into the experience of Divine life (Gal 2:20).
29. So that no one can boast in his presence.
The purpose of God in the message of the cross and in its obvious effects in the lives of God’s chosen are so that no person may boast or glory in the presence of God. If we are saved, Paul is saying to the Corinthians, you are saved, not because of works, not because of who you are, not because you are better than others, mighty wise or noble, but rather you were none of these things. You were unlovely and had nothing to commend you to God. You are saved by his grace alone. It is all his plan, his desire and work and nothing of self.
30. But of Him you are in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God--and righteousness and sanctification and redemption. (NKJVTM)
In contrast, whereas Paul wants the Corinthians to see that they are nothing in themselves, he wants them also to realize what they are in Christ. They are now truly wise, because of the revelation of God which they have received in Christ. Christ is our wisdom. They are righteous, being justified in Christ and imputed with his righteousness. Christ is our righteousness. They are sanctified through Christ who sanctified himself for their sakes (John 17:19). Christ is our sanctification. They are redeemed because of Christ’s death And sacrifice. Christ is our redemption (Rom 11:36).
31. So that, as it is written, "Let the one who boasts, boast in the Lord."
So then, all these things are ours, being freely given to us by God in Christ Jesus. That is why, as the scripture says which Paul quotes here, "If any body wants to boast, let him boast about what Christ has done, because he has done so much for us." Nothing left for me to do for Jesus did it all.But God forbid that I should boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but a new creation (Gal. 6:14-15).
Recommended for You - Further Reading for 1 Corinthians
by Mathew Bartlett
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